Moscow

Entry added as basic information from Wikipedia

History

The city is named after the river (old Russian: гра́д Моско́в, literally "the city by the Moskva River"). The first [but not last] reference to Moscow dates from 1147 when Yuri Dolgorukiy called upon the prince of the Novgorod-Severski to "come to me, brother, to Moscow."[10]

Nine years later, in 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy of Rostov ordered the construction of a wooden wall, the Kremlin, which had to be rebuilt multiple times, to surround the emerging city.[16] After the sacking of 1237–1238, when the Mongols burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants, Moscow recovered and became the capital of the independent Vladimir-Suzdal principality in 1327.[17] Its favorable position on the headwaters of the Volga River contributed to steady expansion. Moscow developed into a stable and prosperous principality, known as Grand Duchy of Moscow, for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia.

moscow spaces

Geography and climate

Location

Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over 500 km through the East European Plain in central Russia. 49 bridges span the river and its canals within the city's limits. Elevation of Moscow at the All-Russia Exhibition Centre (VVC), where the head Moscow weather station is situated, is 156 m (512 ft). The highest point is Teplostanskaya highland at 255 m (837 ft).[27] The width of Moscow city (not limiting MKAD) from west to east is 39.7 km (24.7 mi), and the length from north to south is 51.7 km (32.1 mi).

Moscow's road system is centered roughly around the Kremlin at the heart of the city. From there, roads generally radiate outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads ("rings").

The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the 16th century city wall around that used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town).[17] The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that goes from the Cathedral of Christ the Savior to the Yauza River. In addition, the Boulevard Ring changes street names numerous times throughout its journey across the city.

The second primary ring, located outside the bell end Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a 16th century wall that used to encompass part of the city.[17] The third ring, the Third Transport Ring, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway.

The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, is under construction to further reduce traffic congestion. The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Automobile Ring Road (often called the MKAD from the Russian Московская Кольцевая Автомобильная Дорога), which forms the approximate boundary of the city. Outside the city, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular pattern seen inside city limits.

Time

Moscow serves as the reference point for the timezone used in most of Central Russia, including Saint Petersburg. During winter the areas operate in what is referred to as Moscow Standard Time (MSK, МСК), which is 3 hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+3. During the summer, Moscow Time shifts forward an additional hour ahead of Moscow Standard Time to become Moscow Summer Time (MSD), making it UTC+4.

climate

Moscow has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. Typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July and August are around 23 °C (73 °F), but during heat waves (which can occur between May and September), daytime high temperatures often top 30 °C (86 °F)—sometimes for a week or a two at a time. In the winter, temperatures normally drop to approximately −10 °C (14.0 °F), though there can be periods of warmth with temperatures rising above 0 °C (32 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.2 °C (100.8 °F)[28] at VVC and 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) in the center of Moscow on 29 July 2010 during the unusual 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. At the new averages 1981–2010 mean temperature of July is 19.2 °C (66.6 °F). The lowest ever recorded was −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) in January 1940. Snow cover (present for 3–5 months a year) typically begins at the end of November and melts by mid-March.

Monthly rainfall totals vary minimally throughout the year, although the precipitation levels tend to be higher during the summer than during the winter. Due to the significant variation in temperature between the winter and summer months as well as the limited fluctuation in precipitation levels during the summer, Moscow is considered to be within a continental climate zone.

The average annual temperature in Moscow is 5.8 °C (42.4 °F) (1981–2010), but for the last two years (2007–2008) the annual temperature has averaged above 7 °C (45 °F).[29] In contrast, during the first half of the 20th century, Moscow experienced light frost during the late summer months.[30]

Region of the Central Russia, including Moscow, is one of points of the greatest display of effect of global warming on the earth, excepting growth of temperature at the expense of anthropogenic influence of a city. The mid-annual temperature on the present (norm 1981-2010) in comparison with the beginning of 20 centuries (norm 1879-1908) has grown more than on 2 degrees of Celsius.

Demographics

Population

According to the 2002 Census the population of the city was 10,382,754, however this figure only takes into account legal residents. The latest estimate, as of 1 January 2010, was 10,562,098. The population of the Moscow region was 17,314,776 as of the same date.

At the time of the official 2002 census, the ethnic makeup of the city was:

    East Slavic:                9,121,573 (87.853%)
    Russian:                    8,808,009 (84.833%)
    Ukrainian:                    253,644 (2.401%)
    Belarusian:                    59,353 (0.572%)
    Caucasian:                    326,385 (3.144%)
    Armenian:                     124,425 (1.198%)
    Azeri:                         95,563 (0.920%)
    Georgian:                      54,551 (0.525%)
    Chechen:                       14,481 (0.139%)
    Ossetes:                       10,581 (0.102%)
    Turkish:                      217,467 (2.095%)
    Tatar:                        166,177 (1.600%)
    Mordvin:                       23,970 (0.231%)
    Chuvash:                       16,011 (0.154%)
    Central Asian:                 87,656 (0.844%)
    Tajik:                         35,385 (0.381%)
    Uzbek:                         24,321 (0.234%)
    Jewish (i.e. Ashkenazi):       79,359 (0.764%)
    Asian:                                 (0.84%)
    Did not state an ethnicity:   417,126 (4.018%)

The official population of Moscow is taken from those holding "permanent residency." According to Russia's Federal Migration Service, Moscow also contains 1,800,000 official "guests" who have temporary residency on the basis of visas or other documentation. The number of unofficial guests, those without proper documentation, is estimated to be an additional 1,000,000 people.

Due to a low birth rate and high mortality rate, the population of Russia has declined by approximately 700,000 people per year since the fall of the Soviet Union. In 2003, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births by approximately 49,400.

Density

With information from the 2002 Census, the current population density of Moscow is 8,537.2 people/km2